Sophie Calder-Wang

Sophie Calder-Wang
  • Assistant Professor in Wharton Real Estate
  • Assistant Professor of Business Economics & Public Policy (Secondary)
  • Assistant Professor of Finance (Secondary)

Contact Information

  • office Address:

    427 Vance Hall
    3733 Spruce Street
    Philadelphia, PA 19104

Research Interests: industrial organization, digitization, urban economics

Links: CV, Personal Website

Research

  • Sophie Calder-Wang and Paul Gompers (2021), And the Children Shall Lead: Gender Diversity and Performance in Venture Capital, Journal of Financial Economics, 142 (1). Abstract

    Given the overall lack of gender diversity in the venture capital and entrepreneurship industry shown in Calder-Wang and Gompers (2017) we ask: What promotes greater gender diversity in hiring? Does diversity lead to better firm performance and higher investment returns? In this paper, using a unique dataset of the gender of venture capital partners’ children, we find strong evidence that when partners have more daughters, the propensity to hire female partners increases. Moreover, our instrumental variable results suggest that increased gender diversity improves deal and fund performance. Lastly, the effects are primarily driven by the gender of senior partners’ children.

  • Sophie Calder-Wang and Ariel Pakes (Under Review), Unobserved Heterogeneity, State Dependence, and Health Plan Choices. Abstract

    We provide a new method to analyze discrete choice models with state dependence and individual-by-product fixed effects and use it to analyze consumer choices in a policy-relevant environment (a subsidized health insurance exchange). Moment inequalities are used to infer state dependence from consumers’ switching choices in response to changes in product attributes. We infer much smaller switching costs on the health insurance exchange than is inferred from standard logit and/or random effects methods. A counterfactual policy evaluation illustrates that the policy implications of this difference can be substantive.

  • Sophie Calder-Wang (Working), The Distributional Impact of the Sharing Economy on the Housing Market. Abstract

    I estimate the welfare and distributional impact of the home-sharing platform Airbnb on New York City renters. I develop a structural model of an integrated housing market with two novel features. First, in addition to the traditional long-term rental market, absentee landlords can reallocate their housing units to the newly available short-term rental market. Second, residents can directly host short-term visitors, increasing housing utilization. Overall, renters in NYC suffer a welfare loss of $2.4 billion, where losses from increased rents dominate gains from hosting. Moreover, the increased rent burden falls most heavily on high-income, educated, and white renters. By characterizing winners and losers, this paper provides a framework for evaluating the impact of such technological innovations.

  • Sophie Calder-Wang and Paul Gompers (Working), Diversity and Performance in Entrepreneurial Teams. Abstract

    We study how diversity affects the performance of entrepreneurial teams by exploiting a unique experimental setting in which over 3,000 MBA students participated in a business course to build startups. First, we quantify how selection based on shared personal characteristics contributes to the lack of diversity. Next, when teams are formed through random assignment, we estimate that greater team diversity leads to poorer performances. However, when teams are formed voluntarily, the negative performance effect of diversity becomes greatly alleviated. Lastly, teams with more female members perform better when their faculty advisor is female. These findings suggest that policy interventions to improve diversity should consider the process by which teams are formed, as well as the role of mentoring, to achieve its intended performance goals.

  • Sophie Calder-Wang, Paul Gompers, Patrick Sweeney (Working), Venture Capital’s Me Too Moment. Abstract

    In this paper, we document the under-representation of women in the venture capital sector. We find that the high-profile Pao v. Kleiner Perkins gender discrimination trial likely had dramatic effects on the hiring of women in venture capital: firms with higher exposure to the trial, measured by their home states’ Google search interest in the trial and their network connectivity to Kleiner Perkins based on shared investments, experienced larger increases in the hiring of female venture capital investors. We provide additional evidence that the impact of the trial is concentrated on the venture capital sector, and that these changes do not appear correlated with other contemporaneous social movements. Lastly, we show that the fraction of venture-backed founders who are female also increased after the Pao trial, with both male and female venture capitalists increasing their investments in female founders. These findings are consistent with the notion that the Pao gender discrimination lawsuit has increased the awareness of gender issues in venture capital, leading to changing hiring practices and spillover changes in investment decisions.

Teaching

Past Courses

  • FNCE2090 - Real Estate Investments

    This course provides an introduction to real estate with a focus on investment and financing issues. Project evaluation, financing strategies, investment decision making and real estate capital markets are covered. No prior knowledge of the industry is required, but students are expected to rapidly acquire a working knowledge of real estate markets. Classes are conducted in a standard lecture format with discussion required. The course contains cases that help students evaluate the impact of more complex financing and capital markets tools used in real estate. There are case studies and two midterms, (depending on instructor).

  • FNCE7210 - Real Estate Investments

    This course provides an introduction to real estate with a focus on investment and financing issues. Project evaluation, financing strategies, investment decision making and capital markets are covered. No prior knowledge of the industry is required, but students are expected to rapidly acquire a working knowledge of real estate markets. Classes are conducted in a standard lecture format with discussion required. The course contains cases that help students evaluate the impact of more complex financing and capital markets tools used in real estate. Lecture with discussion required.

  • REAL2090 - Real Estate Investments

    This course provides an introduction to real estate with a focus on investment and financing issues. Project evaluation, financing strategies, investment decision making and real estate capital markets are covered. No prior knowledge of the industry is required, but students are expected to rapidly acquire a working knowledge of real estate markets. Classes are conducted in a standard lecture format with discussion required. The course contains cases that help students evaluate the impact of more complex financing and capital markets tools used in real estate. There are case studies and two midterms, (depending on instructor).

  • REAL7210 - Real Estate Investments

    This course provides an introduction to real estate with a focus on investment and financing issues. Project evaluation, financing strategies, investment decision making and capital markets are covered. No prior knowledge of the industry is required, but students are expected to rapidly acquire a working knowledge of real estate markets. Classes are conducted in a standard lecture format with discussion required. The course contains cases that help students evaluate the impact of more complex financing and capital markets tools used in real estate. Lecture with discussion required.

Awards And Honors

Wharton Teaching Excellence Award, 2021, 2022

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    Activity

    Latest Research

    Sophie Calder-Wang and Paul Gompers (2021), And the Children Shall Lead: Gender Diversity and Performance in Venture Capital, Journal of Financial Economics, 142 (1).
    All Research

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